Wall of Threads

Textile Electronics

Created with Reactive Vapor Deposition

Andrew Group 2019

We Defy Convention

Using Chemistry

Smart Shirt

Smart Garments

For Health Monitoring, Activity Tracking

Reactive Vapor Deposition

Reactive Vapor Deposition

Conformal, Patternable, Rugged Polymer Coatings on Textiles

Thermoelectric Garments

Thermoelectric Garments

Harvesting Body heat with Fabric Thermopiles

Wearable Charge Storage

Garment Integrated Charge Storage

Embroidered Fiber-Based Microsupercapacitors

Fabric Heaters

Cotton Joule Heaters

Garments for Active Heating

Fabric Electrodes

Fabric Electrodes

ECG Enabled Garments

Woven Electronics

Woven Electronics

Woven Triboelectric Fabrics

Posture and Activity Tracking

Detecting Posture and Activity

Sleep Posture Tracking

Embroidered Electrochemical Transistor Array

Fiber Based Biosensors

Electrochemical Transistors and Biosensors for Biomarker Detection


Crystal Growth

Tuning OptoElectronic Properties and Exciton Transport

Photochromic Image


Beating the Fundamental Laws of Diffraction using Photochromes
Learn more

Fabric Solar Cell

Solar Harvesting Fabrics

Monolithically Integated Diodes on Prewoven Fabrics


Chromophore Synthesis

New Monomers and Chemistries for Reactive Vapor Deposition

Test Fixture

Equipment and Facilities

Custom-Designed Fabrication and Testing Facilities Housed in a Beautiful New Buidling

Our Research

Monolithically-Integrated Textile Electronics

Unlike conventional substrates, such as glass, PET or paper, textiles are 3D microscaffolds displaying roughness and texture on multiple length scales.
3D Scaffold

Conformal coating techniques are integral for directly growing nanostructured devices from textile substrates.
We perform a small variety of vapor phase polymerization reactions to create films of conjugated polymers inside a reduced-pressure hot wall reactor.

One such example is the oxidative chemical vapor deposition of EDOT to create PEDOT-Cl.This process creates stable, conformal films of a conducting polymer--PEDOT-Cl, in this case-- on arbitrary substrates, including various prewoven textiles.

PEDOT-Cl coated Fabrics

We use this vapor-phase deposition method to transform ordinary textiles into functional electronic devices. Our approach also minimizes the tremendous water pollution caused by traditional textile processing.
Some of our products are described below.

Fabric / Thread Electrodes

We create highly-conductive fabrics and threads that are capable of acting as electrodes and interconnects while also being stable to sweat, laundering, ironing, stretching/tugging and rubbing.
Conductive Textiles

Smart Garments

We endeavor to seamlessly integrate electronic components, such as transistors, pressure sensors, heating elements, diodes, thermopiles, and supercapacitors, into garments by coating familiar threads and/or garments with judiciously-chosen polymer layers.
Garment Heart Rate Monitor

Activity-Tracking Textiles

We use a small selection of fabric-based pressure sensors to remotely detect joint motion, gait and posture during various activities.

Triboelectric Textiles

Energy Harvesting Textiles

We are exploring multiple integrative approaches to create solar fabrics and fabric-based thermopiles that preserve the breathability, pliability and durability of textiles.
Fabric Solar Cell
Wearable TEG

Reactive Vapor Deposition

A suite of vapor-phase polymerization reactions performed inside reduced-pressure hot wall reactors, collectively termed RVD, are the enabling methods we use to build novel devices. In RVD, polymer films are formed directly on the substrate of interest as vapors of a chemical agent and precursor (or monomer) are introduced into an evacuated reactor chamber simultaneously. This method allows for conformal coating of rough surfaces, with features resolvable down to 100-200 nm. The modularity of RVD ensures that careful monomer choice will lead to the in situ film growth of a host of functional polymers displaying varied properties.


Our current toolbox of RVD reactors enable the deposition of chemically well-defined films of persistently-doped conducting polymers, semiconducting polymers, and poly(acrylates) on arbitrary substrates with micro- and nano-scale features. We are working to expand our toolbox to include n-type conjugated polymer films and conductive polyradical films.

Directing Crystal Orientation and Intermolecular Packing

Crystal orientation in organic thin films is one of the key parameters that determines interfacial energetics, absorption profiles and cross sections, exciton diffusion lengths, exciton dissociation efficiencies, and charge collection efficiencies. Significant excitonic and electronic changes, including huge modulations in absorption profiles, total %light absorbed, Fermi levels, band edge values and CT state energies can be observed when crystals are grown on different surfaces, such as ITO and graphene. Such changes can potentially increase the theoretical Voc expected for photovoltaic devices incorporating these templated films.

Xtal Porn

Transparent Organic Photovoltaic Devices and Flexible, Large-Area Arrays

New Materials for Visible-Transparent Electrodes, Nanostructured Optics to Optimize Light Collection,
and Circuit Design for Solar Cell Arrays Capable of Diffuse-Light Operation

Subdiffraction Optical Lithography Enabled by Photochromes

Currently, nanomanufacturing is achieved via fast pattern-replication (nanoimprint lithography, optical-projection lithography, etc.) and is stymied by extremely slow pattern generation (scanning-electron-beam lithography). In other words, the time it takes to generate a new pattern is orders of magnitude longer than what it takes to simply replicate one.

Light offers significant advantages over charged particles for pattern generation. However, it suffers from one Achilles heel - diffraction. In the far field, the smallest focused spot that can be generated with light is limited to approximately half the wavelength.This, so called far-field diffraction limit or the Abbé limit, effectively prevents the use of long-wavelength photons (greater than 300nm) from patterning nanostructures less than 100 nm.

We have shown that optics, when combined with novel photochemistry, can result in deep sub-wavelength patterning with speeds that are far higher than with conventional approaches.


Our idea is to record the nanoscale pattern in an ultra-thin or monolayer film comprised of photochromic molecules. These molecules undergo photoswitching between two isomeric forms, A and B. When isomer A absorbs a photon of wavelength 1, it turns into isomer B. When B absorbs photon of wavelength 2, it turns back to A. The binary nature of the switching process ensures that sub-diffraction-limited regions of B interspersed in A are formed.

In addition, we design the photochromic molecules such that B can be selectively converted in an irreversible manner to form C via a “locking” step, which allows us to create 3D patterns. These advances in pattern generation, when combined with continuous replication technologies such as roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography can enable a new paradigm in high throughput top-down nanomanufacturing. In other words, organic photochromes can change the traditional process flow currently used to manufacture electronics!

About Trisha L. Andrew

Trisha L. Andrew

Trisha L. Andrew
Principal Investigator


Professor Trisha L. Andrew is an Associate Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. She directs the Wearable Electronics Lab, a multi-disciplinary research team that creates electronic devices  on unconventional substrates using reactive vapor deposition, a technique that allows unmatched flexibility in device architectures, array configurations, and product assembly.  

Trisha started her career as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, after receiving her Ph.D. from MIT in 2011. She has unconventional training in the disparate fields of synthetic organic chemistry and microelectronic device fabrication that inform her unique problem-solving skills and varied research interests. Trisha is a David and Lucille Packard Foundation Fellow, a National Academy of Sciences Kavli Fellow, an Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator, a L’Oréal USA For Women in Science Fellow, a 3M Nontenured Faculty Award winner, and was named as one Forbes’ magazine “30 Under 30” Innovators in Energy.

Here are some articles written about Trisha over the past few years.

Here are some cool videos:

Our Team

WELab Fun 2019 - That's a Fan on Ruolan's Hat

Linden Allison

Linden Allison
Graduate Student

David Bilger

David Bilger
Graduate Student

Ruolan Fan

Ruolan Fan
Graduate Student

S. Zohreh Homayounfar

S. Zohreh Homayounfar
Graduate Student

Kwang-Won Park

Kwang-Won Park
Graduate Student

Wesley Viola

Wesley Viola
Graduate Student
Chemical Engineering

Peiyao Zhao

Peiyao Zhao
Graduate Student
Chemical Engineering

Raaghesh Vijayan

Dr. Raaghesh Vijayan
Postdoctoral Associate

Ali Abdel-Maksoud

Ali Abdel-Maksoud
Undergraduate Student
Electrical Engineering

What Everybody Works On

Lab Alumni

Dr. Jae Joon Kim

Dr. Jae Joon Kim
Former Postdoc
Now @ TokyoTech

Dr. Yuelin Peng

Dr. Yuelin Peng
Electrical Engineering Ph.D.
Now @ KLA Tencor

Dr. Lushuai Zhang (Alumna)

Dr. Lushuai Zhang
Materials Engineering Ph.D.
Now @ MIT

Morgan Baima

Morgan Baima
Chemistry Ph.D.
Now @ Soliyarn LLC

Nongyi Cheng

Nongyi Cheng
Chemistry Ph.D.
Now @ KLA Tencor

Greg Eyer

Greg Eyer
Chemistry M.Sc.

Dr. Jingjing Zhang

Dr. Jingjing Zhang
Former Postdoc
Now @ Argonne National Lab

Dr. Brandon Kobilka

Dr. Brandon Kobilka
Former Postdoc
Now @ IBM Tuscon

Wei Li

Wei Li
Materials Science M.Sc.

Nolan Blythe

Nolan Blythe

Ben Pollock

Ben Pollock

Nick Myllenbeck

Nick Myllenbeck
Now @ LBNL

Our Lab

Lab Facilities

Our Sponsors

Sponsors SponsorsSponsors SponsorsSponsors

Our Publications


Solar Thermal Textiles for On-Body Radiative Energy Collection Inspired by Polar Animals

Wesley Viola, Peiyao Zhao, Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2023, in press. DOI:10.1021/acsami.2c23075 PDF

UMass Amherst Press Release

Humidity-Resistant, Broad-Range Pressure Sensors for Garment-Integrated Health, Motion, and Grip Strength Monitoring in Natural Environments

S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Ali Kiaghadi, Deepak Ganesan, Trisha L. Andrew*
Advanced Materials Technologies, 2023, 2201313. DOI:10.1002/admt.202201313 PDF

UMass Amherst Press Release

AAAS Eureka Alert Highlight

Strategies to Combat the Fouling and Surface Texture Issues Associated with Fabric-Based Wearable Colorimetric Sensors

Peiyao Zhao, Evan Patamia, Trisha L. Andrew*
Sensors and Actuators B, 2023, 377, 133099. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2022.133099 PDF


A Colorimetric Cotton Swab for Viral Protease Detection

+Ranit Dutta, +Sparsh Makhaik, +Peiyao Zhao, Kristalle Cruz, Kwang-Won Park, Hongxiu Liu, Trisha L. Andrew*, Jeanne Hardy*, S. Thayumanavan*
+Equal Contributors
Analytical Chemistry, 2022, 94, 12699-12705. DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.2c02033 PDF

FabToys: Plush Toys with Large Arrays of Fabric-Based Sensors to Enable Fine-Grained Interaction Detection.

Ali Kiaghadi, Jin Huang, S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Trisha L. Andrew, Deepak Ganesan*
MobiSys '22: Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services, 2022, 1-13. DOI:10.1145/3498361.3538931 PDF

Longitudinal Sleep Monitoring For All: Payoffs, Challenges and Outlook.

Trisha L. Andrew*, Soha Rostaminia, S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Deepak Ganesan
ECS Sensors Plus, 2022, 1, 011602. DOI:10.1149/2754-2726/ac59c1 PDF

A Strategy for Accessing Nanobody-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Analyte Detection in Complex Media

Ruolan Fan, Yanfeng Li, Kwang-Won Park, Jiale Du, Lin Hui Chang, Eric R. Strieter, Trisha L. Andrew*
ECS Sensors Plus, 2022, 1, 010601. DOI:10.1149/2754-2726/ac5b2e PDF

Aggregation-Induced Delayed Fluorescence Through Seed-Induced Crystallization

Kwang-Won Park, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2022, 126, 17663-17669. DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c03921 PDF

Large-Area Heteroepitaxial Nanostructuring of Molecular Semiconductor Films for Enhanced Optoelectronic Response in Flexible Electronics

Kwang-Won Park, Raaghesh Vijayan, Trisha L. Andrew*
Advanced Functional Materials, 2022, 32, 2113085. DOI:10.1002/adfm.202113085 PDF

PhyMask: Robust Sensing of Brain Activity and Physiological Signals During Sleep with an All-textile Eye Mask

Soha Rostaminia, S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Ali Kiaghadi, Trisha L. Andrew*, Deepak Ganesan*
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare, 2022, 3, 1-35. DOI:10.1145/3513023 PDF

Flexible Computational Photodetectors for Self-Powered Activity Sensing

Dingtian Zhang, Canek Fuentes-Hernandes, Raaghesh Vijayan, Yang Zhang, Yunzhi Li, Jung Wook Park, Yiyang Wang, Yuhui Zhao, Nivedita Arora, Ali Mirzazadeh, Youngwook Do, Tingyu CHeng, Saignesh Swaminathan, Thad Starner, Trisha L. Andrew, Gregory D. Abowd
Npj Flexible Electronics, 2022, 6, 7. DOI:10.1038/s41528-022-00137-z PDF


Enabling Longitudinal Respiration Monitoring Using Vapor-Coated Conducting Textiles

Linden K. Allison, Soha Rostaminia, Ali Kiaghadi, Deepak Ganesan, Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Omega 2021, 6, 31869-31875. DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.1c04616 PDF

Garment-Integrated Thermoelectric Generator Arrays for Wearable Body Heat Harvesting

Linden K. Allison, Yuen Tung Lee, Trisha L. Andrew*
Flexible and Printed Electronics 2021, 6, 044006. DOI: 10.1088/2058-8585/ac3ffc PDF

Biosensor Encapsulation via Photoinitiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (piCVD)

Ruolan Fan, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2021, 168, 077518. DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/ac1705 PDF

Immobilization of Nanobodies with Vapor-Deposited Polymer Encapsulation for Robust Biosensors

Ruolan Fan, Jiale Du, Kwang-Won Park, Lin Hui Chang, Eric R. Strieter*, Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Applied Polymer Materials 2021, 3, 2561-2567. DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.1c00140 PDF

PressION: An All-Fabric Piezoionic Pressure Sensor for Extracting Physiological Metrics in Both Static and Dynamic Contexts

S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Ali Kiaghadi, Deepak Ganesan, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2021, 168, 017515. DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/abdc65 PDF

An Aqueous Eutectic Electrolyte for Low-Cost, Safe Energy Storage with an Operational Temperature Range of 150oC, from -70oC to 80oC

Wesley Viola, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2021, 125, 246-251. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c09676 PDF


Guaiazulene Revisited: A New Material for Green-Processed Optoelectronics

David Bilger, Kwang-Won Park, Ali Abdel-Maksoud, Trisha L. Andrew*
Polymer Chemistry 2020, 11, 7656-7661. DOI: 10.1039/D0PY01355B PDF

Chesma: Multimodal Smart Eyewear for Longitudinal Eye Movement Tracking

S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Soha Rostaminia, Ali Kiaghadi, Xingda Chen, Emerson T. Alexander, Trisha L. Andrew*
Matter 2020, 7, 30. DOI: 10.1016/j.matt.2020.07.030 PDF

Hear Trisha's Interview on BBC's Digital Planet (starts at 12:56)

Eurekalert! Feature

C&En News Highlight

New Scientist Article

UMass Amherst Press Release

On-Site Identification of Ozone Damage in Fruiting Plants Using Vapor-Deposited Conducting Polymer Tattoos

+Jae Joon Kim, +Ruolan Fan, Linden K. Allison, Trisha L. Andrew*
Science Advances 2020, 6, eabc3296. DOI:10.1126/sciadv.abc3296 PDF

+Equal Contributors

Nature Research Highlight

UMass Amherst Press Release

The Future of Smart Textiles: User Interfaces and Health Monitors

Trisha L. Andrew*
Matter 2020, 2, 794-795. DOI: 10.1016/j.matt.2020.03.011 PDF

Image Credit: Linden K. Allison

Broadband-Absorbing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Composite Films on Topologically Complex Substrates

David Bilger, Kwang-Won Park, Ali Abdel-Maksoud, Trisha L. Andrew*
Organic Electronics 2020, 85, 105862. DOI:10.1016/j.orgel.2020.105862 PDF

Self-Discharge Characteristics of Vapor Deposited Polymer Electrodes in an All-Textile Supercapacitor

Wesley Viola, Chang Jin, Trisha L. Andrew*
Synthetic Metals 2020, 268, 116483. DOI:10.1016/j.synthmet.2020.116483 PDF

Real-Time and Noninvasive Detection of UV-Induced Deep Tissue Damage Using Electrical Tattoos

Jae Joon Kim, Trisha L. Andrew*
Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2020, 149, 7159-7174. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2019.111909 PDF

Perspective—Challenges in Developing Wearable Electrochemical Sensors for Longitudinal Health Monitoring

Ruolan Fan, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2020, 167, 037542.
DOI:10.1149/1945-7111/ab67b0 PDF

Wearable Sensors for Monitoring Human Motion: A Review on Mechanisms, Materials, and Challenges

S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Trisha L. Andrew*
SLAS Technology 2020, 25, 1-16.
DOI:10.1177/2472630319891128 PDF

1D Nanowires of Non-Centrosymmetric Molecular Semiconductors Grown by Physical Vapor Deposition

Kwang-won Park, David Bilger, Trisha L. Andrew*
Molecular Systems Design and Engineering 2020, 5, 110-116.
DOI:10.1039/C9ME00100J PDF


Phyjama: Physiological Sensing via Fiber-Enhanced Pyjamas

Ali Kiaghadi, S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Trisha L. Andrew,* Deepak Ganesan*
Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies 2019, 3, 89. DOI:10.1145/3351247. PDF.

A Critical Review of Reactive Vapor Deposition for Conjugated Polymer Synthesis

David Bilger, S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2019, 7, 7159-7174. DOI:10.1039/C9TC01388A PDF

Vapor-Printed Polymer Electrodes for Long-Term,
On-Demand Health Monitoring

Jae Joon Kim, Linden K. Allison, Trisha L. Andrew*
Science Reports 2019, 5, eaaw0463. DOI:10.1126/sciadv.eaaw0463. PDF

Physics World Highlight

A Wearable All-Fabric Thermoelectric Generator

Linden K. Allison, Trisha L. Andrew*
Advanced Materials Technologies 2019, 4, 1800615. DOI:10.1002/admt.201800615. PDF

Editor's Pick for "Best of Advanced Materials Technologies 2019"

UMass Amherst Press Release

IEEE Spectrum Magazine Article

Oxidant Aggregate Induced Porosity in Vapor Deposited Polymer Films and Correlated Impact on Electrochemical Properties

Wesley Viola, Lushuai Zhang, Trisha L. Andrew*
Supramolecular Chemistry 2019, 31, 491-498. DOI:10.1080/10610278.2019.1623892 PDF

A Vapor Printed Electron-Accepting Conjugated Polymer for Textile Optoelectronics

David Bilger, Kwang-Won Park, Trisha L. Andrew*
Synthetic Metals 2019, 250, 1-6. DOI:10.1016/j.synthmet.2019.02.005 PDF

Wash-Stable, Oxidation Resistant Conductive Cotton Electrodes for Wearable Electronics

Sompit Wanwong,* Weradesh Sangkhun, S. Zohreh Homayounfar, Kwang-Won Park, Trisha L. Andrew*
RSC Advances 2019,9, 9198-9203. DOI:10.1039/C9RA00932A. PDF

Solvent-Free Reactive Vapor Deposition for Functional Fabrics: Separating Oil-Water Mixtures with Fabrics

Nongyi Cheng, Kwang-Won Park, Trisha L. Andrew*
Fibers 2019, 7, 2. DOI:10.3390/fib7010002 PDF

Superresolution Optical Nanopatterning at Low Light Intensities Using a Quantum Yield-Matched Photochrome

Apratim Majumder, Levi Bourke, Trisha L. Andrew, Rajesh Menon*
OSA Continuum 2019, 2, 1754-1761. DOI:10.1364/OSAC.2.001754 PDF


High Energy Density, Super-Deformable, Garment-Integrated Microsupercapacitors for Powering Wearable Electronics

Lushuai Zhang, Wesley Viola, Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2018, 10, 36834-36840. DOI:10.1021/acsami.8b08408. PDF

UMass Amherst Press Release

Market Business News

Material District Highlight

Correio Braziliense Science and Technology Highlight

Using the Surface Features of Plant Matter to Create All-Polymer Pseudocapacitors with High Areal Capacitance

Lushuai Zhang, Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2018, 10, 38574-38580. DOI:10.1021/acsami.8b12551. PDF

Read the C&EN Story highlighting this work.

Fabric as a Sensor: Towards Unobtrusive Sensing of Human Behavior with Triboelectric Textiles

Ali Kiaghadi, Morgan Baima, Jeremy Gummeson, Trisha L. Andrew,* Deepak Ganesan*
The 16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys ’18), November 4–7, 2018, Shenzhen, China. ACM: New York, NY, USA. DOI:10.1145/3274783.3274845. PDF

Fluoropolymer-Wrapped Conductive Threads for Textile Touch Sensors Operating via the Triboelectric Effect

Morgan Baima, Trisha L. Andrew*
Fibers 2018, 6, 41. PDF

Vapor‐Coated Monofilament Fibers for Embroidered Electrochemical Transistor Arrays on Fabrics

Lushuai Zhang, Trisha L. Andrew*
Advanced Electronic Materials 2018, 4, 1800271. PDF

Melding Vapor Phase Organic Chemistry and Textile Manufacturing to Produce Wearable Electronics

Trisha L. Andrew,* Lushuai Zhang, Nongyi Cheng, Morgan Baima, Jae Joon Kim, Linden Allison, Steven Hoxie
Accounts of Chemical Research 2018, 51, 850-859. PDF

Reactive Vapor Deposition of Conjugated Polymer Films on Arbitrary Substrates

Nongyi Cheng, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of Visual Experiments 2018, 131, e56775.

Learn How to Replicate our Deposition Process


Transforming Commercial Textiles and Threads into Sewable and Weavable Electric Heaters

Lushuai Zhang, Morgan Baima, Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2017, 9, 32299-32307. DOI:10.1021/acsami.7b10514. PDF

Rugged Textile Electrodes for Wearable Devices Obtained by Vapor Coating Off-the-Shelf Plain-Woven Fabrics

Lushuai Zhang, Marianne Fairbanks, Trisha L. Andrew*
Advanced Materials 2017, 27, 1700415. DOI:10.1002/adfm.201700415. PDF

Read the Advanced Science News Highlight

Read the UMass Amherst Research Spotlight

Read the Research Next Feature on our work

Vapor Phase Organic Chemistry to Deposit Conjugated Polymer Films on Arbitrary Substrates

Nongyi Cheng, Lushuai Zhang, Jae Joon Kim, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2017, 5, 5787-5796. DOI:10.1039/C7TC00293A. PDF

Towards Seamlessly-Integrated Textile Electronics: Methods to Coat Fabrics and Fibers with Conducting Polymers for Electronic Applications

Linden K. Allison, Steven Hoxie, Trisha L. Andrew*
Chemical Communications 2017, 53, 7182-7193. DOI:10.1039/C7CC02592K. PDF

Deposition Dependent Ion Transport in Doped Conjugated Polymer Films: Insights for Creating High-Performance Electrochemical Devices

Lushuai Zhang, Trisha L. Andrew*
Advanced Materials Interfaces 2017, 1700873 DOI:10.1002/admi.201700873. PDF

Integrating a Semitransparent, Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cell in Tandem with a BiVO4 Photoanode for Unassisted Solar Water Splitting

Yuelin Peng, Gokul Govindaraju, Dong Ki Lee, Kyoung-Shin Choi,* Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2017, 9, 22449-22455. DOI:10.1021/acsami.7b04486. PDF

ITO-Free Transparent Organic Solar Cell with Distributed Bragg Reflector for Solar Harvesting Windows

Yuelin Peng, Lushuai Zhang, Nongyi Cheng, Trisha L. Andrew*
Energies 2017, 10, 707. DOI:10.3390/en10050707. PDF

Read the Research Spotlight on Dr. Yuelin Peng's work

Origin of High Open-Circuit Voltage in a Planar Heterojunction Solar Cell Containing a Non-Fullerene Acceptor

Nongyi Cheng, Yuelin Peng, Trisha L. Andrew*
Applied Physics Letters 2017, 111, 133901. DOI:10.1063/1.4997502. PDF

Triplet Exciton Dissociation and Electron Extraction in Graphene-Templated Pentacene Observed with Utrafast Spectroscopy

Thomas J. McDonough, Lushuai Zhang, Susmit Singha Roy, Nicholas M. Kearns, Michael S. Arnold, Martin Zanni*, Trisha L. Andrew
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2017, 19, 4809-4820. DOI:10.1039/C6CP06454J. PDF

Anomalous Paramagnetism in Closed-Shell Molecular Semiconductors

Gregory P. Eyer, Kevin R. Kittilstved, Trisha L. Andrew*
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2017, 121, 24929-24935. DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b07270. PDF

Synthesis and Properties of Dithiocarbamate-Linked Acenes

Jingjing Zhang, Nicholas R. Myllenbeck, Trisha L. Andrew*
Organic Letters 2017, 19, 210-213. DOI:10.1021/acs.orglett.6b03492. PDF


All-Textile Triboelectric Generator Compatible with Traditional Textile Process

Lushuai Zhang, Yanhao Yu, Gregory P. Eyer, Guoquan Suo, Liz Anna Kozik, Marianne Fairbanks, Xudong Wang, Trisha L. Andrew*
Advanced Materials Technologies 2016, 1600147. PDF

Orientation Control of Selected Organic Semiconductor Crystals Achieved by Monolayer Graphene Templates

Lushuai Zhang, Susmit Singha Roy, Nathaniel S. Safron, Melinda J. Shearer, Robert M. Jacobberger, Vivek Saraswat, Robert J. Hamers, Michael S. Arnold, Trisha L. Andrew*
Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 1600621. PDF

Improved Photovoltaic Response of a Near-Infrared Sensitive Solar Cell by a Morphology-Controlling Seed Layer

Lushuai Zhang, Trisha L. Andrew*
Org. Electron. 2016, 33, 135-141. PDF

Color-Pure Violet-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Layered Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoplates

Dong Liang, Yuelin Peng, Yongping Fu, Melinda J. Shearer, Jingjing Zhang, Jianyuan Zhai, Yi Zhang, Robert J. Hamers, Trisha L. Andrew*, Song Jin*
ACS Nano 2016, 10, 6897-6904. PDF

Reverse-Absorbance-Modulation-Optical Lithography for Optical Nanopatterning at Low Light Levels

Apratim Majumder, Xiaowen Wan, Farhana Masid, Benjamin J. Pollock, Trisha L. Andrew*, Olivier Soppera, Rajesh Menon*
AIP Adv. 2016, 6, 065312. PDF

A Comprehensive Simulation Model of the Performance of Photochromic Films in Absorbance-Modulation-Optical-Lithography

Apratim Majumder, Phillip L. Helms, Trisha L. Andrew*, Rajesh Menon*
AIP Adv. 2016, 6, 035210. PDF


Molecular Orientation-Dependent Interfacial Energetics and Built-in Voltage Tuned by a Template Graphene Monolayer

Lushuai Zhang, Susmit Singha Roy, Robert J. Hamers, Michael S. Arnold, Trisha L. Andrew*
J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 45-54. PDF

Restricting the Ψ Torsion Angle Has Stereoelectronic Consequences on a Scissile Bond: An Electronic Structure Analysis

Eric R. Strieter* and Trisha L. Andrew*
Biochemistry 2015, 54, 5748-5756. PDF

Barrier-Free Absorbance Modulation for Super-Resolution Optical Lithography

Apratim Majumder, Farhana Masid, Benjamin J. Pollock, Trisha L. Andrew*, Rajesh Menon*
Opt. Express 2015, 23, 12244-12250. PDF

Development of Lead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells Using Three-Dimensional Titanium Dioxide Nanowire Architectures

Yanhao Yu, Jianye Li, Dalong Geng, Jialiang Wang, Lushuai Zhang, Trisha L. Andrew, Michael S. Arnold, Xudong Wang*
ACS Nano 2015, 9, 564-572. PDF

Observing Electron Extraction by Monolayer Graphene Using Time-Resolved Surface Photoresponse Measurements

Lushuai Zhang, Susmit Singha Roy, Caroline R. English, Robert J. Hamers, Michael S. Arnold, Trisha L. Andrew*
ACS Nano 2015, 9, 2510-2517. PDF


High Open-Circuit Voltage, High Fill Factor Single-Junction Organic Solar Cells

Yuelin Peng, Lushuai Zhang, Trisha L. Andrew*
Appl. Phys. Lett. 2014, 105, 083304. PDF

Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions - Fabrication and Characterization

Precious Cantu, Trisha L. Andrew* Rajesh Menon*
J. Vis. Exp. 2014, 94, e52449. Link

Patterning via Optical-Saturable Transformations: A Review and Simple Simulation Model

Precious Cantu, Trisha L. Andrew* Rajesh Menon*
Appl. Phys. Lett. 2014, 105, 193105. PDF


Effect of Synthetic Accessibility on the Commercial Viability of Organic Photovoltaics

Timothy P. Osedach*, Trisha L. Andrew,* Vladimir Bulovic
Energy Environ. Sci. 2013, 6, 711-718. PDF

Nanopatterning of Diarylethene Films via Selective Dissolution of One Photoisomer

Precious Cantu, Trisha L. Andrew* Rajesh Menon*
Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 103, 173112. PDF

Optical Patterning of Features with Spacing Below the Far-Field Diffraction Limit Using Absorbance Modulation

Farhana Masid, Trisha L. Andrew* Rajesh Menon*
Optics Express 2013, 21, 5209-5214. PDF

Cyclobutadiene-C60 Adducts:  N-type Materials for Organic Photovoltaic Cells with High VOC

Grace Han, William Collins, Trisha L. Andrew, Vladimir Bulovic, Timothy. M. Swager*
Adv. Funct. Mater., 2013, 23, 3061-3069. PDF

Light-Recycling Within Electronic Displays Using Deep Red and Near Infrared Photoluminescent Polarizers

Menendez-Velazquez, A.; Mulder, C. L.; Thompson, N. J.; Reusswig, P. D.; Andrew, T. L.; Rotschild, C.; Baldo, M. A.
Energy Environ. Sci. 2013, 6, 72-75. PDF

Postdoctoral and Graduate Research Publications

Andrew, T. L.; Lobez, J. M. L.; Bulovic, V.; Swager, T. M. “Improving the Performance of P3HT-Fullerene Solar Cells with Side-Chain-Functionalized Poly(thiophene) Additives:  A New Paradigm for Polymer Design” ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 3044-3056. example graphic

Paydavosi, S.; Yaul, F.; Wang, A. I.; Andrew, T. L.; Bulovic, V.; Lang, J. H. “MEMS Switches Employing Active Metal-Polymer Nanocomposites” IEEE 25th International Conference on MEMS 2012, 180-183.
Andrew, T. L.; Bulovic, V. “Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Containing 6,6-Dicyanofulvenes as n-Type Additives” ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 4671-4677. example graphic

Takeda, Y.; Andrew, T. L.; Lobez, J. M.; Mork, A. J.; Swager, T. M. “An Air-Stable Low-Bandgap n-Type Polymer Semiconductor Exhibiting Selective Solubility in Perfluorinated Solvents” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2012, 51, 9042-9046. PDF pub15

Osedach, T. P.; Iacchetti, A.; Lunt, R. R.; Andrew, T. L.; Bulovic, V. “Near-infrared photodetector consisting of J-aggregating cyanine dye and metal oxide thin films” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 113303.

Osedach, T. P.; Zhao, N.; Andrew, T. L.; Bawendi, M. G.; Bulovic, V. “Bias-Stress Effect in 1,2-Ethanedithiol-Treated PbS Quantum Dot Field-Effect Transistors” ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 3121-3127.

Cantu, P.; Brimhall, N.; Andrew, T. L.; Menon, R. Subwavelength nanopatterning of photochromic diarylethene films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 100, 183103.

Brimhall, N.; Andrew, T. L.; Manthena, R. V.; Menon, R. Breaking the Far-Field Diffraction Limit in Optical Nanopatterning via Repeated Photochemical and Electrochemical Transistions in Photochromic Molecules. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 107, 205501. PDF

Read the ARS Technica about this paper.


Rotschild, C.; Tomes, M.; Mendoza, H.; Andrew, T. L.; Swager, T. M.; Carmon, T.; Baldo, M. A. Cascaded Energy Transfer for Efficient Broad-Band Pumping of High-Quality Micro-Lasers Adv. Mater. 2011, 23, 3057-3060. PDF

Andrew, T. L.; Swager, T. M. Selective Detection of High Explosives Via Photolytic Cleavage of Nitroesters and Nitramines.
J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 2976-2993. PDF

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Andrew, T. L.; Swager, T. M. Thermally-polymerized rylene nanoparticles.
Macromolecules, 2011, 44, 2276-2281. PDF

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Andrew, T. L.; Swager, T. M. Structure Property Relationships for Exciton Transfer in Conjugated Polymers.
J. Polym. Sci. B, 2011, 49, 476-498. PDF

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Andrew, T. L.; VanVeller, B.; Swager, T. M. The Synthesis of Azaperylene-9,10-dicarboximides.
Synlett, 2010, 3045-3048. PDF

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Andrew, T. L.; Cox, J. R.; Swager, T. M. Synthesis, Reactivity, and Electronic Properties of 6,6-Dicyanofulvenes.
Org. Lett. 2010, 12, 5302-5305. PDF

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Levine, M.; Song, I.; Andrew, T. L.; Kooi, S. E.; Swager, T. M. Photoluminescent energy transfer from poly(phenyleneethynylene)s to near-infrared emitting fluorophores.
J. Polym. Sci. A, 2010, 48, 3382-3391. PDF

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Andrew, T. L.; Tsai, H.-Y.; Menon, R. Confining Light to Deep Subwavelength Dimensions to Enable Optical Nanopatterning.
Science, 2009, 324, 917-921. PDF

Read the MIT EECS Research Highlight about this paper.

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Moslin, R. M.; Andrew, T. L.; Kooi, S. E.; Swager, T. M. Anionic Oxidative Polymerization: The Synthesis of Poly(phenylenedicyanovinylene) (PPCN2V).
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 20-21. PDF

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Andrew, T. L. and Swager, T. M. A Fluorescence Turn-On Mechanism to Detect the High Explosives RDX and PETN.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 7254-7255. PDF

Read the Technology Review coverage of this work.

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Andrew, T. L. and Swager, T. M. Reduced Photobleaching of Conjugated Polymer Films Through Small Molecule Additives.
Macromolecules, 2008, 41, 8306-8308. PDF


Andrew, T. L.; Fairbanks, M. Conductive Textiles.

Andrew, T. L.; Zhang, L. Polymeric Capacitors for Energy Storage Devices.

Bulović, V.; Lang, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Swager, T. M.; Andrew, T. L. D'Asaro, M. E.; Deotare, P.; Murarka, A.; Niroui, F.; Sletten, E.; Wang, A. I-J. Electromechanical device with reduced energy loss and flucuation due to temperature change.

Swager, T.M.; Bulović, V.; Han, G.D.; Andrew, T. L. Functionalized nanostructures and related devices.

Swager, T.M.; Andrew, T. L. Detection of analytes using nitro-containing analytes.

Swager, T. M.; Andrew, T. L.; Thomas, S. W. III; Bouffard, J. Determination of Explosives Including RDX.

Swager, T. M.; Andrew, T. L. Stabilizing Agents for Prevention of Photobleaching.

Swager, T. M.; Andrew, T. L. Determination of Explosives via Photolytic Cleavage of Nitramines and Nitroesters.

Swager, T. M.; Lobez, J. M.; Wang, F.; Andrew, T. L.; Bulovic, V. Side-Chain Functionalized Polymer Surfactants to Decrease Charge Recombination in Solar Cells.

Swager, T. M.; Andrew, T. L. ; Bulović, V. 6,6-Dicyanofulvenes as Fullerene Substitutes in Bulk Heterojunction Soalr Cells.

Paydavosi, S.; Wang, A. I.; Niroui, F.; Yaul, F.; Murarka, A. Andrew, T. L.; Bulović, V.; Lang, J. Electronically Controlled Squishable Composite Switch.

Swager, T. M.; Han, G.; Collins, W.; Andrew, T. L.; Bulović, V.;Cyclobutadiene-C60 adducts as N-type materials for photovoltaic devices.

Get in touch

Wearable Electronics Lab:
210 Physical Sciences Building
690 N. Pleasant St.
Amherst MA 01003
(413) 545-2755

Professor Trisha L. Andrew:
277 Physical Sciences Building
690 N. Pleasant St.
Amherst MA 01003
(413) 545-1651